Battle of Longewala (Famous Photograph)

Tank tracks photograph from Battle of Longewala in 1971 war. Major Kuldip Singh Chandpuri and other heroes in truth caused big casualties to Pakistani army.

It is not a modern art painting nor it is a drawing made on a sandy beach. Today’s famous photograph does not belong to such pleasant environs. Instead it is a war photograph; taken from a bloody battle: The Battle of Longewala. This battle was part of the India-Pakistan war of 1971 in which Pakistan eventually had surrendered. Battle of Longewala was the first major engagement between the belligerent countries on the Western sector. If you have seen Sunny Deol starer Border movie, released in 1997, you must already be knowing quite a bit about this battle. The movie depicts the events that took place during the Longewala battle.

Battle of Longewala. An aerial view of tracks left by Pakistani tanks when they tried to escape fire from Indian Air Force (IAF).

Battle of Longewala. An aerial view of tracks left by Pakistani tanks when they tried to escape fire from Indian Air Force (IAF).

This photograph is taken by a reconnaissance plane and it shows the tracks of Pakistani tanks that were made during their desperate last minute maneuvers to avoid strike by the fighter places of Indian Air Force. The circled areas in the photograph show the destroyed Pakistani tanks.

During the war, Pakistan’s President Yahya Khan knew that the East Pakistan was indefensible. Therefore, he wanted to concentrate on Western border to grab as much Indian territory as possible. This territory later could be used as a tool to pressurize India during the negotiation. Pakistani Army chief General Tikka Khan proposed that Pakistani Army should enter the Indian territory under the cover of Pakistan Air Force.

The Pakistani army decided to enter through Longewala (about 80 kilometers from Ramgarh) and then hoped to capture Jaisalmer via Ramgarh. However, the Pakistani army made several strategic mistakes in planning and execution of this attack. They sent forces along with two tank battalions to Longewala at the night of 4 December 1971. But the Pak troops did not send anyone, in advance, to know about the route in the desert terrain.

The Longewala outpost of Indian Army was then held by Major Kuldip Singh Chandpuri and his 120 men. Their position was on top of a large sand dune which they had surrounded with barbed wires. The Indian party was in a very strong defensive position due to the height of sand dune. Also the sandy area was not easily navigable by the vehicles (as well as tanks). Apart from their usual rifles, the Indian men had only one Jeep mounted M40 anti-tank gun. The attacking Pak forces had 2800 soldiers, 65 tanks, 138 military vehicles, 5 field guns and 3 anti-aircraft guns. Pakistani forces, led by Brigadier Tariq Mir, attacked Indian outpost on the intervening night of the 4 and 5 December 1971. The attack began at 12:30 in the night.

In the first wave of attack, Pakistani soldiers killed five out of ten camels of the Indian Border Security Force (BSF) available to the outpost. Indians had no time to lay a proper minefield, so they hastily laid as many mines as possible in the vicinity of the outpost. As the column of 65 Pakistani tanks advanced, the Indian soldiers patiently held fire. When the tanks were about 20 meters away, the Indians opened fire and using the sole anti-tank gun they had they destroyed two foremost tanks in the column.

The outpost was to get support from Indian Air Force (IAF) but the IAF plane could not fly because they were not equipped with the night vision. So, the outpost was told either to hold ground until dawn or flee. Major Chandpuri’s men, brave as they were, decided to defend their post. And they did! They held the advance of Pakistani forces until the sun rose above the horizon.

That rising sun of 5 December 1971 brought nightmare for the Pakistani troops. The Indian Air Force sent four Hawker Hunter fighter jets to help the Indian soldiers. Pakistani troops had not planned for such an attack. They had thought that they will easily win the outpost under the dark cover of night. But as the night waned, they found IAF jets hovering over their heads. And then began destruction. For Indian jets the Pakistani tanks proved to be sitting ducks. The desert was open, there was no place to hide, tanks’ guns were not able to hit the aircraft and they were also under fire from the Indian soldiers on ground. The Pakistani forces sent messages to ask for air support but the Pakistan Air Force was busy elsewhere. So, Indian jets had no resistance at all.

36 tanks of Pakistan were destroyed or captured, 200 soldiers were killed and 100 military vehicles were destroyed. Arrival of Indian jets had stopped the advance of Pakistani army; and when Indian tanks arrived -the Pakistani troops were forced to withdraw from the area.

Indian soldiers doing Bhangara atop a captured Pakistani tank in Longewala.

Major Chandpuri’s men destroyed 12 tanks whereas 22 tanks were destroyed by the Indian jets. Some of the tanks were captured by Indian forces. The IAF attack was led by Wing Commander M.S. Bawa.

Another famous photograph that I am presenting today is that of Indian soldiers doing Bhangra (an Indian dance) atop a captured Pakistani tank.

Did you know?

  • Border movie over-dramatized the Battle of Longewala. The truth is that India lost only 2 of its soldiers during the battle. Indian outpost was in a very strong defensive location.
  • Major Chandpuri was later awarded Maha Vir Chakra (second highest gallantry award in India).
  • Indian soldiers held Pakistan’s advance for more than six hours before the air support could arrive.
  • The Pakistani divisional commander who led the Longewala attack was dismissed from service.

Here is a video that tells you the story of Longewala battle. Some of the figures used in this clip differ from what I have written in my article. My figures have been verified using Wikipedia (which, in turn, has further citations).

I hope you likes this famous photograph. Stay connected for tomorrow’s presentation when I will bring you another photograph that remained etched in the memory of mankind. Please feel free to comment and let me know your valuable feedback. Thank you for reading this article.

Lalit Kumar is a web explorer and founder of www.TechWelkin.com. He loves finding useful things on Internet and knows how to put them together to create a bigger solution. He is passionate about technology, languages and literature. Sign-up for email newsletter for receiving technology tips.

Comments

  1. shyam m says

    That aerial photo was taken by Ramesh Sakharam Benegal flying a Canberra photo recce plane. He was once in the INA’s small air corps. An enlarged framed version of the photo is displayed in the lobby of the defence ministry in Delhi

  2. Col D R Singh Sikarwar says

    Col Dharam Raj Singh
    Well, Major Chandpuri has nothing to says about the battle. He is banking on what I am writing. We 17 RAJ RIF (Sawaian) had reinforced him that morning.Here people seem to know more then those who had participated. Friends, enemy tanks took more then 3 & 1/2 hours to reach the vicinity of Laungewala from the IB. His medium guns fired blindly at 0230 hrs. How could the attack begin at 12:30 that night? The first night attack was launched at around 0430 hrs. It was beaten back by Major Chandpuri and his boys. Thus the above photograph was taken by the publicity department of Govt of India, on 12 Dec 1971. It was meant more for publicity of the battle. Wait for my book LAUNGEWALA ‘THE BATTLE AS THEY FOUGHT IT. it is coming soon. Col D R Singh (retd)

  3. shailesh k. chourasiya says

    Kuldeep sir,
    U have made urself a great sikh following ” chidiyon se baaz ladau tabe guru ka sikh kahaun”
    Kash ki aaj ke log ye himmat aur junun apne deah ke liye rakh pate

  4. Shanky says

    Hats Off to our Army…. We can never payback our whole lives what those heroes had done to secure our freedom on that heroic nightfall…. Jai Hind….

  5. Ankerla_hemanth says

    i sincerely salute to our military  for  showing their courage to protect our mother land facing thousands of enemy troops with adequate resources. jai hind

  6. Kavita says

    Thanks for sharing this wonderful write-up, the info provided (names of Pak soildures) is even bit more than Border. I would like to share few facts about this battle:

    Indian losses in this sector were seven T-55s and one AMX-13, but the Hunters had done their job well. Of the 54 or so Pakistani T-59 and Sherman tanks that had come in, as many as forty were destroyed or abandoned. Another 138 vehicles of all types were destroyed along with 5 field guns and three anti-aircraft guns.

    The lesson of Longewal is clear: success in any endeavour requires balancing caution with courage.
    Jai Hind!!!

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